Does anyone know where to find background information on the rules for Shva Na and Shva Nach? Are there simple formulas that Kriah teachers are using?
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Well, I am not a Kriah teacher per say, but would like to answer this question.
דקדוק rules. There are 2 commonly used סימנים for Shva Na rules which can be found there. The most common is א ב ג ד ה ו, my תיקון uses the less common:
א. Beginning of a word (like א in the Aleph Beis)
ב. Two Shva’im in a row.
ג. Tenuah Gedolah (That can be a post in and of itself.)
ה. Hadomos-Same letters the first is Na(i.e. HaLIlu)
ו. Meseg-(looks like a vav)
ז. Zanav (Trop) the Shva after it is Na.
ח. Chataf the Chataf itself is a form of Shva Na
ט. T’amim (two trops on one word the first is also Na)
י. Yud after a vav Hamehapech like VaYIdaber (Machlokes)
Conspicuously absent from this list is Shva after a Hey Hayediyah, but that is really included in "Dagesh". (There are notable cases where there is no Dagesh but still Na - Hamevorach in barchu for example.)
Hope this helps...